Oct 31 Bio Lecture Distinguishing Species

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Causes of Homoplasy

  • Convergent evolution causes similar morphological traits. Convergent evolution is when the same selection factors cause different species to develop similar traits.
  • Similarities in DNA sequence due to parallel sequences or reversing mutations


  • Compare ways of distinguishing species.
  • Analyze how speciation occurs in terms of:
    • Isolation
    • Divergence


Species are evolutionarily independent populations.

Speciation is a splitting event because it makes populations evolutionarily isolated (genetically independent).

On Exam

Biological species concept: criteria, advantages, disadvantages.

Morphospecies concept: criteria, advantages, disadvantages.

Phylogenetic Species Concept

Evolutionary history of species.

Monophyletic group: clade and all its ancestors.

Paraphyletic group: ancestor and some, but not all, descendants.


Allopatric: different place

Sympatric: same place